-- Perl 5.8.7 documentation --


ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file


    use ExtUtils::Manifest qw(...funcs to import...);
    my @missing_files    = manicheck;
    my @skipped          = skipcheck;
    my @extra_files      = filecheck;
    my($missing, $extra) = fullcheck;
    my $found    = manifind();
    my $manifest = maniread();
    maniadd({$file => $comment, ...});



ExtUtils::Manifest exports no functions by default. The following are exported on request

  • mkmanifest

    Writes all files in and below the current directory to your MANIFEST. It works similar to

        find . > MANIFEST

    All files that match any regular expression in a file MANIFEST.SKIP (if it exists) are ignored.

    Any existing MANIFEST file will be saved as MANIFEST.bak. Lines from the old MANIFEST file is preserved, including any comments that are found in the existing MANIFEST file in the new one.

  • manifind
        my $found = manifind();

    returns a hash reference. The keys of the hash are the files found below the current directory.

  • manicheck
        my @missing_files = manicheck();

    checks if all the files within a MANIFEST in the current directory really do exist. If MANIFEST and the tree below the current directory are in sync it silently returns an empty list. Otherwise it returns a list of files which are listed in the MANIFEST but missing from the directory, and by default also outputs these names to STDERR.

  • filecheck
        my @extra_files = filecheck();

    finds files below the current directory that are not mentioned in the MANIFEST file. An optional file MANIFEST.SKIP will be consulted. Any file matching a regular expression in such a file will not be reported as missing in the MANIFEST file. The list of any extraneous files found is returned, and by default also reported to STDERR.

  • fullcheck
        my($missing, $extra) = fullcheck();

    does both a manicheck() and a filecheck(), returning then as two array refs.

  • skipcheck
        my @skipped = skipcheck();

    lists all the files that are skipped due to your MANIFEST.SKIP file.

  • maniread
        my $manifest = maniread();
        my $manifest = maniread($manifest_file);

    reads a named MANIFEST file (defaults to MANIFEST in the current directory) and returns a HASH reference with files being the keys and comments being the values of the HASH. Blank lines and lines which start with # in the MANIFEST file are discarded.

  • manicopy
        manicopy($src, $dest_dir);
        manicopy($src, $dest_dir, $how);

    copies the files that are the keys in the HASH %$src to the $dest_dir. The HASH reference $read is typically returned by the maniread() function. This function is useful for producing a directory tree identical to the intended distribution tree. The third parameter $how can be used to specify a different methods of "copying". Valid values are cp , which actually copies the files, ln which creates hard links, and best which mostly links the files but copies any symbolic link to make a tree without any symbolic link. Best is the default.

  • maniadd
      maniadd({ $file => $comment, ...});

    Adds an entry to an existing MANIFEST unless its already there.

    $file will be normalized (ie. Unixified). UNIMPLEMENTED


Anything between white space and an end of line within a MANIFEST file is considered to be a comment. Filenames and comments are separated by one or more TAB characters in the output.


The file MANIFEST.SKIP may contain regular expressions of files that should be ignored by mkmanifest() and filecheck(). The regular expressions should appear one on each line. Blank lines and lines which start with # are skipped. Use \# if you need a regular expression to start with a sharp character. A typical example:

    # Version control files and dirs.
    # Makemaker generated files and dirs.
    # Temp, old and emacs backup files.

If no MANIFEST.SKIP file is found, a default set of skips will be used, similar to the example above. If you want nothing skipped, simply make an empty MANIFEST.SKIP file.


&mkmanifest , &manicheck , &filecheck , &fullcheck , &maniread , and &manicopy are exportable.


$ExtUtils::Manifest::MANIFEST defaults to MANIFEST . Changing it results in both a different MANIFEST and a different MANIFEST.SKIP file. This is useful if you want to maintain different distributions for different audiences (say a user version and a developer version including RCS).

$ExtUtils::Manifest::Quiet defaults to 0. If set to a true value, all functions act silently.

$ExtUtils::Manifest::Debug defaults to 0. If set to a true value, or if PERL_MM_MANIFEST_DEBUG is true, debugging output will be produced.


All diagnostic output is sent to STDERR .

  • Not in MANIFEST: file

    is reported if a file is found which is not in MANIFEST .

  • Skipping file

    is reported if a file is skipped due to an entry in MANIFEST.SKIP .

  • No such file: file

    is reported if a file mentioned in a MANIFEST file does not exist.

  • MANIFEST: $!

    is reported if MANIFEST could not be opened.

  • Added to MANIFEST: file

    is reported by mkmanifest() if $Verbose is set and a file is added to MANIFEST. $Verbose is set to 1 by default.



    Turns on debugging


ExtUtils::MakeMaker which has handy targets for most of the functionality.


Andreas Koenig <andreas.koenig@anima.de>