$Id: Release-Notes-1.1.txt,v 1.18.2.9 1997/08/07 20:46:25 wessels Exp $

Release Notes for version 1.1 of the Squid cache.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

	Ident (RFC 931) lookups
	URL Redirector
	Reverse IP Lookups, client hostname ACLs
	Cache directory structure changes
        Getting true DNS TTL info into Squid's IP cache
	Using a neighbor as both a parent and a sibling
	Forcing your neighbors to use you as a sibling
	Refresh Rules and If-Modified-Since
	Overriding neighbor refresh rules
	Object Purge Policy
	X-Forwarded-For request header
	Network Probe Database
	Planning for Squid's Memory Usage
	Default Parent
	Cachemgr Passwords
	Round-Robin IP
	Store Hash Configuration Options
	GNU malloc
	GNU regex
	Access Log Fields
	Access Log Tags
	Hierarchy Data Tags
	Using Multicast ICP
	Store.log Fields
	Notes for running Squid under NEXTSTEP


Ident (RFC 931) lookups
==============================================================================
Squid will make an RFC931/ident request for client connections if
'ident_lookup' is enabled in the config file.  Currently, the ident
value is only logged with the request in the access.log.  It is not
currently possible to use the ident return value for access control
purposes.

URL Redirector
==============================================================================
Squid now has the ability to rewrite requested URLs.  Implemented
as an external process (similar to a dnsserver), Squid can be
configured to pass every incoming URL through a 'redirector' process
that returns either a new URL, or a blank line to indicate no change.

The redirector program is NOT a standard part of the Squid package.
However there are a couple of user-contributed redirectors in the
"contrib/" directory.  Since everyone has different needs, it is up to
the individual administrators to write their own implementation.  For
testing, and a place to start, this very simple Perl script can be
used:

    #!/usr/local/bin/perl
    $|=1;
    print while (<>);

The redirector program must read URLs (one per line) on standard input,
and write rewritten URLs or blank lines on standard output.  Note that
the redirector program can not use buffered I/O.  Squid writes
additional information after the URL which a redirector can use to make
a decision.  The input line consists of four fields:

    URL ip-address/fqdn ident method

The ip-address is always given, the fqdn and ident fields will be given if
available, or will be "-" otherwise.  Note that the ident value will only
be available if 'ident_lookup' in enabled in the config file.  The
request method is GET, POST, etc.

Note that when used in conjunction with the -V option (on a virtual hosted
machine) this provides a mechanism to use a single Squid cache as a front
end to numerous servers on different machines.  URLs written to the
redirector will look like:

    http://192.0.0.1/foo
    http://192.0.0.2/foo

The redirector program might be this Perl script:

    #!/usr/local/bin/perl
    $|=1;
    while (<>) {
        s@http://192\.0\.0\.1@http://www1.foo.org@;
        s@http://192\.0\.0\.2@http://www2.foo.org@;
        print;
    }

You may receive statistics on the redirector usage by requesting the
following 'cache_object' URL:

    % client cache_object://localhost/stats/redirector



Reverse IP Lookups, client hostname ACLs.
==============================================================================
Squid now has a address-to-hostname cache ("fqdncache") much like the
name-to-address cache ("ipcache").  This means Squid can now write
client hostnames in the access log, and that client domain names can
be used in ACL expressions.

If you would like to log hostnames instead of addresses, enable
'log_fqdn' in your config file.  This causes a reverse-lookup to be
started just after the client connection has been accepted.  If the
reverse lookup has completed by the time the entry gets logged, the
fully qualified domain name will be used, otherwise the IP address
is still logged.  Squid does not wait for the reverse lookup before
logging the access.

A new ACL type has been added for matching client hostnames:

    acl Myusers srcdomain foo.org

The use of this ACL type may cause noticeable delay in serving objects
through the cache.  However, so long as allowed clients are local, the
reverse lookup should not take very long and the delay may not be
noticed.

Only the FQDN (i.e. the h_name field) is used for the comparison,
host aliases are *not* checked.

If a reverse lookup fails, the word "none" will be used for the
comparison.  If you wanted to deny access to clients which did not
map back to valid names, you could use

    acl BadClients srcdomain none
    http_access deny BadClients

NOTE: DNS has a number of known security problems.  Squid does not make
any effort to guarantee the validity of data returned from gethostbyname()
or gethostbyaddr() calls.


Cache directory structure changes
==============================================================================
The following improvements to the cache directory structure are due
to Mark Treacy (mark@aone.com.au).

Squid-1.0 used 100 first-level directories for each 'cache_dir'.  For
very large caches, this meant between 5,000-10,000 files per directory,
which isn't good for performance on any unix system.  As well as the
directory search times being slow, the amount of disk traffic due to
directory operations was quite large (due to directory fragmentation
(variable length filenames) each directory was about 100k in size).

To reduce the number of files per directory it was necessary to
increase the number of directories used.  If this was done using a
single level directory structure we would have a single 'cache_dir'
with an excessive number of directories in it.  Hence we went to a 2
level structure.  We wanted to keep each directory smaller than a
filesystem block (usually 4-8k), and also wanted to be able to
accommodate 1M+ objects.  Assuming approximately 256 objects per
directory, we settled on 16 first-level (L1) and 256 second-level (L2)
directories for a total of 16x256x256 = 1,048,576 objects.

The number of L1 and L2 directories to use is configurable in the
squid.conf file (swap_level1_dirs, swap_level2_dirs).  To estimate the
optimal numbers for your installation, we recommend the following
formula:

given:
	DS = amount of 'cache_swap' / number of 'cache_dir's
	OS = avg object size = 20k
	NO = objects per L2 directory = 256

calculate:
	L1 = number of L1 directories
	L2 = number of L2 directories

such that:
	L1 x L2 = DS / OS / NO


Getting true DNS TTL info into Squid's IP cache
==============================================================================
If you have source for BIND, you can modify it as indicated in the diff
below.  It causes the global variable _dns_ttl_ to be set with the TTL
of the most recent lookup.  Then, when you compile Squid, the configure
script will look for the _dns_ttl_ symbol in libresolv.a.  If found,
dnsserver will return the TTL value for every lookup.

This hack was contributed by Endre Balint Nagy <bne@CareNet.hu>

diff -ru bind-4.9.4-orig/res/gethnamaddr.c bind-4.9.4/res/gethnamaddr.c
--- bind-4.9.4-orig/res/gethnamaddr.c	Mon Aug  5 02:31:35 1996
+++ bind-4.9.4/res/gethnamaddr.c	Tue Aug 27 15:33:11 1996
@@ -133,6 +133,7 @@
 } align;

 extern int h_errno;
+int _dns_ttl_;

 #ifdef DEBUG
 static void
@@ -223,6 +224,7 @@
 	host.h_addr_list = h_addr_ptrs;
 	haveanswer = 0;
 	had_error = 0;
+	_dns_ttl_ = -1;
 	while (ancount-- > 0 && cp < eom && !had_error) {
 		n = dn_expand(answer->buf, eom, cp, bp, buflen);
 		if ((n < 0) || !(*name_ok)(bp)) {
@@ -232,8 +234,11 @@
 		cp += n;			/* name */
 		type = _getshort(cp);
  		cp += INT16SZ;			/* type */
-		class = _getshort(cp);
- 		cp += INT16SZ + INT32SZ;	/* class, TTL */
+		class = _getshort(cp);
+		cp += INT16SZ;                  /* class */
+		if (qtype == T_A  && type == T_A)
+			_dns_ttl_ = _getlong(cp);
+		cp += INT32SZ;                  /* TTL */
 		n = _getshort(cp);
 		cp += INT16SZ;			/* len */
 		if (class != C_IN) {


Using a neighbor as both a parent and a sibling
==============================================================================
The only difference between a sibling and a parent is that
cache misses are NOT fetched from siblings.  In some cases it may be
desirable to use a neighbor as a parent for some domains and as a
sibling for others.  This can now be accomplished with the
'neighbor_type_domain' configuration tag.  For example:

	cache_host  parent cache.foo.org 3128 3130
	neighbor_type_domain cache.foo.org sibling .com .net
	neighbor_type_domain cache.foo.org sibling .au .de

Note that neighbor_type_domain is totally separate from the
cache_host_domain option (which controls whether or not to query the
neighbor).  In the absence of cache_host_domain restrictions, the
neighbor cache.foo.org will be queried for all requests.

If the URL host domain is .com, .net, .au, or .de then cache.foo.org is
treated as a sibling (and MISSES will NOT be fetched through
cache.foo.org).  Otherwise it will be treated as a parent (which is the
default from the cache_host line.

Forcing your neighbors to use you as a sibling
==============================================================================
In a distributed cache hierarchy, you may need to force your peer
caches to use you as a sibling and not a parent; ie its okay for
them to fetch HITs from you, but not okay to resolve MISSes through
your cache (using your resources).

This can be accomplished by using the 'miss_access' config line.  The
miss_access ACL list is very similar to the 'http_access' list.  This
functionality is implemented as a separate access list because when we
check the http_access list, we don't yet know if the request will be a
hit or miss.  The sequence of events goes something like this:

	1. accept new connection
	2. read request
	3. check http_access
	4. process request, check for hit or miss (IMS, etc)
	5. check miss_access

Note that in order to get to the point where miss_access is checked, the
request must have also passed the http_access check.

You probably only want to use 'src' type ACL's with miss_access, although
you can use any of the access control types.

If you are restricting your neighbors, be sure to allow miss_access
to your local clients (e.g. users at browsers)!


Refresh Rules and If-Modified-Since
==============================================================================
Squid 1.1 switched from a Time-To-Live based expiration model to a
Refresh-Rate model.  Objects are no longer purged from the cache when
they expire.  Instead of assigning TTL's when the object enters the
cache, we now check freshness requirements when objects are requested.
If an object is "fresh" it is given directly to the client.  If it is
"stale" then we make an If-Modified-Since request for it.

When checking the object freshness, we calculate these values:

    AGE is how much the object has aged *since* it was retrieved:

	AGE = NOW - OBJECT_DATE

    LM_AGE is how old the object was *when* it was retrieved:

	LM_AGE = OBJECT_DATE - LAST_MODIFIED_TIME

    LM_FACTOR is the ratio of AGE to LM_AGE:

	LM_FACTOR = AGE / LM_AGE

    CLIENT_MAX_AGE is the (optional) maximum object age the client will
    accept as taken from the HTTP/1.1 Cache-Control request header.

    EXPIRES is the (optional) expiry time from the server reply headers.

These values are compared with the parameters of the 'refresh_pattern'
rules.  The refresh parameters are:

	URL regular expression
	MIN_AGE
	PERCENT
	MAX_AGE

The URL regular expressions are checked in the order listed until a
match is found.  Then this algorithm is applied for determining if an
object is fresh or stale:

    if (CLIENT_MAX_AGE)
        if (AGE > CLIENT_MAX_AGE)
            return STALE
    if (AGE <= MIN_AGE)
        return FRESH
    if (EXPIRES) {
        if (EXPIRES <= NOW)
            return STALE
        else
            return FRESH
    }
    if (AGE > MAX_AGE)
        return STALE
    if (LM_FACTOR < PERCENT)
        return FRESH
    return STALE

Note that the Max-Age in a client request takes the highest precedence.
The 'MIN' value should normally be set to zero since it has higher
precedence than the server's Expires: value.  But if you wish to
override the Expires: headers, you may use the MIN value.

Overriding neighbor refresh rules
==============================================================================
The refresh rules also have an effect on the requests your cache makes
to its neighbors.  Squid uses the MAX_AGE value in the HTTP/1.1
"Cache-Control: Max-age=nnn" request header for outgoing requests.
This solves the problem where neighbors with more relaxed refresh
policies would send you stale objects (by your configuration).


Object Purge Policy
==============================================================================
Squid attempts to keep the size of the disk cache relatively "smooth"
or "flat."  That is, objects are removed at the same rate they are
added.  Earlier versions had a "sawtooth" behavior where objects were
removed only when disk space reached an upper limit.

Squid uses a Least-Recently-Used (LRU) replacement algorithm.  Objects
with large LRU age values are removed before objects with small LRU age
values.  We dynamically calculate the LRU age threshold, above which
objects are removed.  The threshold is calculated as an exponential
function between the high and low water marks.  When the store swap
size is near the low water mark, the LRU threshold is large.  This
encourages more objects to be cached.  When the store swap size is near
the high water mark, the LRU threshold is small, encouraging more
objects to be removed.  The 'reference_age' configuration parameter
specifies the upper limit on the LRU age threshold.

The Squid cache storage is implemented as a hash table with some number
of "hash buckets."  Squid scans one bucket at a time and sorts all the
objects in the bucket by their LRU age.  Objects with an LRU age
over the threshold are removed.  The scan rate is adjusted so that
it takes approximately 24 hours to scan the entire cache.  The
store buckets are randomized so that we don't always scan the same
buckets at the same time of the day.

If the store swap size somehow exceeds the high water mark, Squid
performs an "emergency" object purge.  We sort up to 256 objects in a
store bucket and remove the eight (8) least recently used ones.  This
continues until the disk space is below the low water mark.

X-Forwarded-For request header
==============================================================================
Squid used to add a request header called "Forwarded" which appeared
in some early HTTP/1.1 draft documents.  This header had the format

    Forwarded: by cache-host for client-address

Current HTTP/1.1 draft documents instead use the "Via" header, but it
does not provide any standard way of indicating the client address
in the request.  Since a number of people missed having the originating
client address in the request, Squid now adds its own request header
called "X-Forwarded-For" which looks like this:

    X-Forwarded-For: 128.138.243.150, unknown, 192.52.106.30

Entries are always IP addresses, or the word "unknown" if the address
could not be determined or if it has been disabled with the
'forwarded_for' configuration option.

We must note that access controls based on this header are extremely
weak and simple to fake.  Anyone may hand-enter a request with any IP
address whatsoever.  This is perhaps the reason why client IP addresses
have been omitted from the HTTP/1.1 specification.


Using ICMP to Measure the Network
==============================================================================
As of version 1.1.9, Squid is able to utilize ICMP Round-Trip-Time (RTT)
measurements to select the optimal location to forward a cache miss.
Previously, cache misses would be forwarded to the parent cache
which returned the first ICP reply message.  These were logged
with FIRST_PARENT_MISS in the access.log file.  Now we can
select the parent which is closest (RTT-wise) to the origin
server.

 1. Supporting ICMP in your Squid cache

    It is more important that your parent caches enable the ICMP
    features.  If you are acting as a parent, then you may want
    to enable ICMP on your cache.  Also, if your cache makes
    RTT measurements, it will fetch objects directly if your
    cache is closer than any of the parents.

    If you want your Squid cache to measure RTT's to origin servers,
    Squid must be compiled with the USE_ICMP option.  This is easily
    accomplished by uncommenting "-DUSE_ICMP=1" in src/Makefile and
    src/Makefile.in.

    An external program called 'pinger' is responsible for sending and
    receiving ICMP packets.  It must run with root privileges.  After
    Squid has been compiled, the pinger program must be installed
    separately.  A special Makefile target will install 'pinger' with
    appropriate permissions.

        % make install
        % su
        # make install-pinger

    There are three configuration file options for tuning the
    measurement database on your cache.  'netdb_low' and 'netdb_high'
    specify high and low water marks for keeping the database to a
    certain size  (e.g. just like with the IP cache).  The 'netdb_ttl'
    option specifies the minimum rate for pinging a site.  If
    'netdb_ttl' is set to 300 seconds (5 minutes) then an ICMP packet
    will not be sent to the same site more than once every five
    minutes.  Note that a site is only pinged when an HTTP request for
    the site is received.

    Another option, 'minimum_direct_hops' can be used to try finding
    servers which are close to your cache.  If the measured hop count
    to the origin server is less than or equal to minimum_direct_hops,
    the request will be forwarded directly to the origin server.

 2. Utilizing your parents database

    Your parent caches can be asked to include the RTT measurements
    in their ICP replies.  To do this, you must enable 'query_icmp'
    in your config file:

        query_icmp on

    This causes a flag to be set in your outgoing ICP queries.

    If your parent caches return ICMP RTT measurements then
    the eighth column of your access.log will have lines
    similar to:

        CLOSEST_PARENT_MISS/it.cache.nlanr.net

    In this case, it means that 'it.cache.nlanr.net' returned
    the lowest RTT to the origin server.  If your cache measured
    a lower RTT than any of the parents, the request will
    be logged with

        CLOSEST_DIRECT/www.sample.com


 3. Inspecting the database

    The measurement database can be viewed from the cachemgr by
    selecting "Network Probe Database."  Hostnames are aggregated
    into /24 networks.  All measurements made are averaged over
    time.  Measurements are made to specific hosts, taken from
    the URLs of HTTP requests.  The recv and sent fields are the
    number of ICMP packets sent and received.  At this time they
    are only informational.

    A typical database entry looks something like this:

    Network          recv/sent     RTT  Hops Hostnames
    192.41.10.0        20/  21    82.3   6.0 www.jisedu.org www.dozo.com
        bo.cache.nlanr.net        42.0   7.0
        uc.cache.nlanr.net        48.0  10.0
        pb.cache.nlanr.net        55.0  10.0
        it.cache.nlanr.net       185.0  13.0

    This means we have sent 21 pings to both www.jisedu.org and
    www.dozo.com.  The average RTT is 82.3 milliseconds.  The
    next four lines show the measured values from our parent
    caches.  Since 'bo.cache.nlanr.net' has the lowest RTT,
    it would be selected as the location to forward a request
    for a www.jisedu.org or www.dozo.com URL.


Planning for Squid's Memory Usage
==============================================================================
Squid-1.1 has better memory management, although still not ideal.
Squid uses memory in a variety of ways, but the bulk of memory
usage falls into two categories: per-object metadata and in-transit
objects.

The per-object metadata consists of a StoreEntry data structure, plus
the URL for every object your cache knows about.  This usually averages
out to about 100 bytes per object.  If you assume that the objects
themselves average 20 KB each, then given your disk size ('cache_swap')
you need 1/200th as much for in-memory object metadata.

The other big memory use is due to in-transit objects.  The amount
of memory required for this will depend on your cache's usage patterns.
Obviously a more busy cache will require more memory for in-transit
objects.

The 'cache_mem' parameter places a soft upper limit on the amount of
memory Squid allocates for holding whole objects in VM.  The
'cache_mem' memory is allocated as a pool of 4k blocks.  Objects held
in memory are stored in blocks from this pool.  The 'cache_mem_low' and
'cache_mem_high' values affect the memory reclamation algorithm.

There are two types of in-memory objects: in-transit objects and
completed objects.  The in-transit objects are "locked" in memory until
they are completed.  The completed objects may be either normal or
"negative-cached" objects.

Whenever new memory is needed for in-transit objects and current usage
is above the high water mark, Squid purges some completed objects from
memory.   The in-memory objects are sorted by time of last use and then
removed in order until memory usage is below the low water mark.

Occasionally Squid may need to exceed the maximum number of blocks.
This will happen if all of the in-transit objects will not fit within
the 'cache_mem' pool size.  You will see this warning in your cache.log
file:

    WARNING: Exceeded 'cache_mem' size (4122K > 4096K)

If this warning occurs frequently then you need to consider either
increasing the 'cache_mem' value or decreasing the
'maximum_object_size' value.  If the cache_mem usage is above the low
water mark, then Squid will check for objects larger than
'maximum_object_size.'  Any such objects are put into "delete behind"
mode which means Squid releases the section of the object which has
been delivered to all clients reading from it.

As a rule-of-thumb, you should probably set 'cache_mem' to 1/3 of your
machine's physical memory amount.  You can plan on another 1/3 being
used by the per-object metadata.  And the final 1/3 will be used by
other data structures, unaccounted memory, and malloc() overhead.
Note, this assumes that the machine will be dedicated to running
Squid.  If there are other services on the machine, the memory
estimates should be lowered.

Default Parent
==============================================================================
Squid has the ability to mark parent caches as the 'default' way to
fetch objects.  This is probably only useful with the 'no-query' option.
For example, the configuration

     cache_host N1 sibling 3128 3130
     cache_host N2 sibling 3128 3130
     cache_host N3 sibling 3128 3130
     cache_host P1 parent 3128 3130 no-query default

will result in ICP queries to sibling caches N1, N2, and N3.  If none
of the siblings has the requested object then it will be retrieved
through parent P1 due to the 'default' designation.  Note that
'default' does not conflict with any 'cache_host_domain' restrictions
which might be placed on a neighbor.

We do not normally recommend use of the default option.  If your
parent cache(s) uses ICP then you should also send them ICP queries.
If your default parent is unreachable then Squid will return error
messages, it will not attempt direct connections to the source.

Cachemgr Passwords
==============================================================================
Squid-1.1 allows cachemgr passwords to be specified in the squid.conf
file (instead of an /etc/passwd entry).  There may be a different
password for each cachemgr operation, but only one password per
operation.  Some sensitive operations require a password, others may be
executed if no passwords are given in the squid.conf file.  Operations
may be disabled by setting the password to "none." See squid.conf for a
full list of cachemgr operations.

Round-Robin IP
==============================================================================
When a hostname resolves to multiple IP addresses, Squid now cycles to
the next address after each connection.  If a connection to an address
fails, it is removed from the list.  If a hostname runs out of
addresses, it is removed from the IP cache.

Store Hash Configuration Options
==============================================================================
Squid's internal hash table for holding objects has a couple of
configuration options (thanks to Mark Treacy).  Given the following
configuration parameters:

	cache_swap
	store_avg_object_size		# default 20K
	store_objects_per_bucket	# default 20

We first estimate the number of objects your cache can hold:

	NUM_OBJ = cache_swap / store_avg_object_size

Then we estimate the number of hash buckets needed:

	NUM_BUCKETS = NUM_OBJ / store_objects_per_bucket

We want Squid to scan the entire hash table, one bucket at a time, over
the course of about a day.  We also need NUM_BUCKETS to be a prime
number for optimal distribution of the hash table.  NUM_BUCKETS is
rounded off so that the number of buckets and maintenance rate are
taken from this table:

	store_buckets	store_maintain_rate
	     7951		10 sec
	    12149		 7 sec
	    16231		 5 sec
	    33493		 2 sec
	    65357		 1 sec

If you want to increase the maintenance rate then decrease the
store_objects_per_bucket parameter.

GNU malloc
==============================================================================
Many users have reported significant performance improvements when Squid
is linked with the GNU malloc library.  A check for 'libgnumalloc.a'
has therefore been added to the configure script.  If libgnumalloc.a
is found, it is automatically linked in.

GNU regex
==============================================================================
Squid's configure script attempts to determine whether or not it should
compile the GNU regex functions supplied in the source distribution.
If your system appears to have its own POSIX compliant regex functions
then configure may decide to use those instead of GNU regex.

Access Log Fields
==============================================================================
The native access.log has ten (10) fields.  There is one entry here for
each HTTP (client) request and each ICP Query.  HTTP requests are
logged when the client socket is closed.  A single dash ('-') indicates
unavailable data.

 1) Timestamp
	The time when the client socket is closed.  The format is "Unix
	time" (seconds since Jan 1, 1970) with millisecond resolution.
 2) Elapsed Time
	The elapsed time of the request, in milliseconds.  This is time
	time between the accept() and close() of the client socket.
 3) Client Address
	The IP address of the connecting client, or the FQDN if the
	'log_fqdn' option is enabled in the config file.
 4) Log Tag / HTTP Code
	The Log Tag describes how the request was treated locally (hit,
	miss, etc).  All the tags are described below.  The HTTP code
	is the reply code taken from the first line of the HTTP reply
	header.  Non-HTTP requests may have zero reply codes.
 5) Size
	The number of bytes written to the client.
 6) Request Method
	The HTTP request method, or ICP_QUERY for ICP requests.
 7) URL
	The requested URL.
 8) Ident
	If 'ident_lookup' is on, this field may contain the username
	associated with the client connection as derived from the
	ident service.
 9) Hierarchy Data / Hostname
	A description of how and where the requested object was
	fetched.
10) Content Type
	The Content-type field from the HTTP reply.

Access Log Tags
==============================================================================
"TCP_" refers to requests on the HTTP port (3128)

        TCP_HIT			A valid copy of the requested object was
				in the cache.
        TCP_MISS		The requested object was not in the cache.
	TCP_REFRESH_HIT		The object was in the cache, but STALE.
				An If-Modified-Since request was made and
				a "304 Not Modified" reply was received.
	TCP_REF_FAIL_HIT	The object was in the cache, but STALE.
				The request to validate the object failed,
				so the old (stale) object was returned.
	TCP_REFRESH_MISS	The object was in the cache, but STALE.
				An If-Modified-Since request was made and
				the reply contained new content.
	TCP_CLIENT_REFRESH	The client issued a request with the
				"no-cache" pragma.
	TCP_IMS_HIT		The client issued an If-Modified-Since
				request and the object was in the cache
				and still fresh.
	TCP_IMS_MISS		The client issued an If-Modified-Since
				request for a stale object.
        TCP_SWAPFAIL		The object was believed to be in the cache,
				but could not be accessed.
        TCP_DENIED		Access was denied for this request

"UDP_" refers to requests on the ICP port (3130)

        UDP_HIT         A valid copy of the requested object was in the cache.
        UDP_HIT_OBJ     Same as UDP_HIT, but the object data was small enough
                        to be sent in the UDP reply packet.  Saves the
                        following TCP request.
        UDP_MISS        The requested object was not in the cache.
        UDP_DENIED      Access was denied for this request.
        UDP_INVALID     An invalid request was received.
	UDP_RELOADING	The ICP request was "refused" because the cache is
			busy reloading its metadata.

"ERR_" refers to various types of errors for HTTP requests.

Hierarchy Data Tags
==============================================================================

        DIRECT                  The object has been requested from the origin
                                server.
        FIREWALL_IP_DIRECT      The object has been requested from the origin
                                server because the origin host IP address is
                                inside your firewall.
        FIRST_PARENT_MISS       The object has been requested from the
                                parent cache with the fastest weighted round
                                trip time.
        FIRST_UP_PARENT         The object has been requested from the first
                                available parent in your list.
        LOCAL_IP_DIRECT         The object has been requested from the origin
                                server because the origin host IP address
                                matched your 'local_ip' list.
        SIBLING_HIT		The object was requested from a sibling cache
                                which replied with a UDP_HIT.
        NO_DIRECT_FAIL          The object could not be requested because
                                of firewall restrictions and no parent caches
                                were available.
        NO_PARENT_DIRECT        The object was requested from the origin server
                                because no parent caches exist for the URL.
        PARENT_HIT              The object was requested from a parent cache
                                which replied with a UDP_HIT.
        SINGLE_PARENT           The object was requested from the only
                                parent cache appropriate for this URL.
        SOURCE_FASTEST          The object was requested from the origin server
                                because the 'source_ping' reply arrived first.
        PARENT_UDP_HIT_OBJ      The object was received in a UDP_HIT_OBJ reply
                                from a parent cache.
        SIBLING_UDP_HIT_OBJ     The object was received in a UDP_HIT_OBJ reply
                                from a sibling cache.
	PASSTHROUGH_PARENT	The neighbor or proxy defined in the config
				option 'passthrough_proxy' was used.
	SSL_PARENT_MISS		The neighbor or proxy defined in the config
				option 'ssl_proxy' was used.
	DEFAULT_PARENT		No ICP queries were sent to any parent
				caches.  This parent was chosen because
				it was marked as 'default' in the config
				file.
	ROUNDROBIN_PARENT	No ICP queries were received from any parent
				caches.  This parent was chosen because
				it was marked as 'default' in the config
				file and it had the lowest round-robin use
				count.
	CLOSEST_PARENT_MISS	This parent was selected because it
				included the lowest RTT measurement to
				the origin server.  This only appears
				with 'query_icmp on' set in the config
				file.
	CLOSEST_DIRECT		The object was fetched directly from the
				origin server because this cache measured
				a lower RTT than any of the parent caches.


Almost any of these may be preceeded by 'TIMEOUT_' if the two-second
(default) timeout occurs waiting for all ICP replies to arrive from
neighbors.

Using Multicast ICP
==============================================================================
As of Squid-1.1.6, ICP queries can be sent via multicast.  Use of multicast
requires the following config file entries:

    1) A cache which wants to *receive* multicast ICP queries must
       be configured to join a multicast address.  This is done with
       the 'mcast_groups' directive.    For example:

	mcast_groups  224.9.9.9

    2) A cache which wants to *send* multicast ICP queries must add
       a "multicast group" neighbor.  For example:

	cache_host 224.9.9.9 multicast 3128 3130 ttl=64

       In this situation, the HTTP port (3128) is ignored, but the ICP
       port (3130) must be correct.  All multicast group members must
       use the same ICP port number.  The 'ttl=' option specifies the
       IP Multicast TTL value to be used when sending a multicast
       datagram.

    3) Because Squid does not trust ICP replies received from unknown
       peers, you must specify all acceptable neighbors which might
       respond to your multicast query.  These appear as normal parents
       or siblings, but with the special 'multicast-responder' option.
       For example:

	cache_host foo.sample.com sibling 3128 3130 multicast-responder

Use of multicast creates an interesting dilemma; normally Squid sends N
queries and expects N replies.  But with multicast Squid doesn't really
know how many replies to expect.  Somehow Squid must know roughly how
many ICP replies to expect, but at the same time it must be careful to
not over-estimate and therefore incur many ICP query timeouts.

The current approach is this: Squid periodically (every 15 minutes)
sends fake ICP queries to only multicast peers.  The replies are
counted, up until the 'neighbor_timeout' time.  The count is averaged
over time with a fast decay so that it adjusts relatively quickly.
The number of replies to expect is rounded down to the nearest whole
integer to minimize the chance of suffering the neighbor timeout
on real ICP queries.

Store.log Fields
==============================================================================
The file store.log consists of the following fields:

    time action code date lastmod expires type expect-len/real-len method key

    time       The time this entry was logged.  The value is the
               raw Unix time plus milliseconds.

    action     One of RELEASE, SWAPIN, or SWAPOUT.
               RELEASE means the object has been removed from the cache.
               SWAPOUT means the object has been saved to disk.
               SWAPIN  means the object existed on disk and has been
                       swapped into memory.

    code       The HTTP reply code.

    The following three fields are timestamps parsed from the HTTP
    reply headers.  All are expressed in Unix time.  A missing header
    is represented with -2 and an unparsable header is represented as -1.

    date       The value of the HTTP Date reply header.  If the Date
               header is missing or invalid, the time of the request
               is used instead.

    lastmod    The value of the HTTP Last-Modified: reply header.

    expires    The value of the HTTP Expires: reply header.

    type       The HTTP Content-Type reply header.

    expect-len The value of the HTTP Content-Length reply header.
               Zero if Content-Length was missing.

    real-len   The number of bytes of content actually read.  If the
               expect-len is non-zero, and not equal to the real-len,
               the object will be released from the cache.

    method     HTTP request method

    key        The cache key.  Often this is simply the URL.  Cache objects
               which never become public will have cache keys that include
               a unique integer sequence number, the request method, and
               then the URL.


Notes for running Squid under NEXTSTEP
==============================================================================
When running Squid under NEXTSTEP 3.x, and when that NEXTSTEP system
runs a BIND named process (most NEXTSTEPS handle that through netinfo
and netinfo might contact a BIND named on another system) squid can
trigger an error in the older BIND named that comes with NEXTSTEP 3.x.
It is therefore necessary for systems running NEXTSTEP 3.x, which run
their own BIND named, to run a more recent version of BIND. Luckily you
don't have to compile BIND yourself, a fat (m68k i486 hppa sparc)
Installer package for BIND-4.9.5 is available through
ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/comp/next/Internet.

NB: Under NEXTSTEP, it is currently necessary to have BIND running on
the system that runs Squid. The dnsserver processes query BIND directly
and bypass both Netinfo and YP. (It does so because the Netinfo- and
YP-aware gethostbyname sets h_errno wrong. If someone knows a solution
for this, please inform Gerben_Wierda@RnA.nl).

Gerben Wierda <Gerben_Wierda@RnA.nl>